The word “quantum” has gained its true meaning in the last years of the 20th century and today we can practically every day hear something new in this field.
When we begin to talk about “quantum” in the field of computing, we approach the truly dramatic changes that will shape the coming period.
Quantum computing is a technology based on the principles of quantum theory that explains the nature of energy at atomic level. The experiment of Erwin Schrödinger of 1930, which included a cat, who was at the same time alive and dead, wanted to show the apparent absurdity of the superposition (one of the two quantum mechanical phenomena in quantum theory) – the principle where the quantum system could exist in different simultaneously until it is observed or measured. Today, quantum computers contain dozens of kubits (quantum bits) that exploit the potential of this principle. Each kubit exists in the superposition of zeros and one (for example, a kubit has a “non-zero” number of options that will be zero or one) until it is measured. The development of cubits has implications for dealing with mass data and achieving so far unachievable levels of computer performance, which has enormous potential for quantum computing.
While Schrödinger was talking about “zombie” cats, Albert Einstein watched a “scary distance action” – particles that were supposed to communicate more rapidly than the speed of light. What Einstein saw, they were electrons. “Entaglement” is another of the two quantum mechanical phenomena in quantum theory, which relates to the observation of the state of particles of the same quantum system, which can not be described individually or as a result. independently. Even when separated by large distances, they are still part of the same system. At present, the distance record measured between these particles is 1,200 kilometers. “Entanglement” means that the entire quantum system is larger than the sum of the individual parts.
If the above-described phenomena seem to be too complicated, at this point we can add Schrödinger’s quotation, which he pronounced after developing quantum theory: “I do not like it and I’m very sorry that I had to meet this at all times at all . ”
Different actors associate different approaches to quantum computing, and therefore it must be borne in mind that a single interpretation can not be correct. There is, however, one principle that could help laics better understand the difference between classical computing and quantum computing. Classic computers are binary.
This simply means that they can only operate with zeros and enzymes. Schrödinger’s cat in some way managed to show that subatomic particles can take on an infinite number of different states simultaneously. If we imagine a space, the binary option would be such: 0 would be, for example, the north pole, and 1 the south pole.
Within the cubit, it is possible that the entire sphere can withstand the infinite number of states and the relationships between these kubits make certain correlations that make quantum computing suitable for specific tasks that classical computers can not execute. Creating cubits and maintaining their existence enough time for quantum computing activities to take place is a lengthy process.